Goddard Pioneers: Celebrating Women in Science and Engineering | 戈达德先行者:致女性科学家与工程师

NASA began empowering female scientists and engineers more than 20 years before Women’s History Month became an official national celebration .

NASA雇佣女性科学家与女性工程师的历史比妇女历史月的确定 还早20年。

Several of the most notable female scientists and engineers in the 20th century put their skills to work on missions at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.  Their work significantly influenced study in their fields and at NASA.

20世纪里几位最著名的女性科学家和工程师为NASA戈达德空间研究所 的任务倾注了她们的所学所能。在她们的领域和NASA,她们的工作影响深远。

Women who stand out from the list include Nancy  Grace Roman, widely acknowledged to be the mother of Hubble Space Telescope; Marjorie Townsend, an engineer and the first woman in the U.S. space program to manage a mission; and Joanne Simpson, the first American woman to earn a doctorate in meteorology, who developed the theory, now verified, of “hot towers” within cloud systems.

这些伟大的女性有南希 ,众所周知的“哈勃太空望远镜之母”;马乔里· 汤森,第一位执行 NASA太空任务的女性工程师;还有乔安妮·辛普森,第一位成为气象学博士的美国女性,她提出的云层系统“热塔理论”,现已被证实。

 

Nancy Grace Roman

南希·格蕾丝·罗曼

During her years at NASA, Roman set in motion the age of space telescopes, which continues today as NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope – the largest space observatory ever built – prepares for its 2018 launch.

罗曼在NASA工作期间,带动了太空望远镜时代的发展。这个热潮延续至今,2018年,最大的宇宙望远镜——詹姆斯 也将被送入太空。

Roman took a job with NASA in February  1959, several months after the agency’s official inception. It was an age when female astronomers performed mostly  menial tasks, such as cataloguing stars, Roman said in a September 2000 oral history given to NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston. But NASA officials hired her as the fledgling agency’s first chief of astronomy and tasked her with shaping the astronomy program.

在几个月的检验期 后,罗曼于1959年进入NASA。“ 这个时期,女性宇航员通常被任命去做乏味 卑微的工作,比如给星星编写目录。”罗曼于2000年9月在休斯顿NASA强森宇宙中心 说到这段历史。但是NASA却正式录用她为刚起步的太空科学处的首席主管,负责制定一些天文任务。

 

Nancy Roman speaks with Robert Jastrow, left, director of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York, and Fred Haddock of the University of Michigan observatory. The photo was taken in 1962.

Credits: NASA

Nancy Roman(中)与Robert Jastrow(左)还有Fred Haddock(右)谈话,前者是纽约戈达德研究中心主管,后者是密歇根大学考察员 ,照片拍摄于1962年。

图片来源:NASA

 

“I finally decided that the challenge of starting with a completely clean slate and mapping out a program that would influence astronomy for 50 years was just more than I could turn down,” Roman said in that interview.

“我终于决定挑战这个空白的领域,以及制定这项影响了天文学50年之久的计划,这项计划一旦开始,连我也无法停止它的进程。”罗曼在这次会谈中如此说道。

She helped get the first space-based astronomy missions at NASA off the ground – literally – in the 1960s and 1970s, but more famously, Roman set up the Hubble Space Telescope program. The resulting space telescope is widely acknowledged to have changed the astronomy textbooks, and is approaching 26 years in orbit in April 2016.  Roman finished her career at Goddard where she served as the manager of the Astronomical Data Center. Employees at the center contributed to the astronomy of the future, digitizing astronomical catalogs, ensuring they were consistent, reformatting them for better usability and more.

她推动了NASA二十世纪六七十年代在宇宙天文学方面的起步,而更让她为人所知的成就是制定了哈勃太空望远镜计划。太空望远镜在它的轨道上服役的26年里,极大地丰富 了天文学的课本。罗曼在戈达德研究中心最后的职位是天文数据中心主管。天文数据中心的职责主要是为未来化的天文学做出贡献,数字化天文目录,确保数据统一,以及重订格式提高数据的可用性。

 

Marjorie Townsend

马乔里· 汤森

 

Townsend and Roman both helped launch groundbreaking astronomical observatories in their time, but they did so from opposite approaches. While Roman was an astronomer, Townsend was an engineer and the first woman to assume a project manager role in the U.S. space program. She worked on the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS) series project, launching three satellites between 1970 and 1979.

汤森与罗曼一样,都在她们的时代里推动了开创性的天文观测学,但是她们达成这个成就的途径却各有不同。罗曼是天文学家,而汤森是位工程师,同时她也是美国航空史上第一位成为项目主管的女性。她曾致力于几个小型天文卫星(SAS)项目,在1970年至1979年中发射了三颗卫星。

Townsend was responsible for all aspects of the design, construction and launch process of the three spacecraft, which observed the universe in the X-ray, gamma-ray, ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

这三颗卫星被用于观测宇宙X射线、伽马射线、紫外线以及电磁频谱的可见和红外区域,汤森负责了它们的设计、结构和发射过程。

 

Marjorie Townsend discusses the performance of SAS-1, the first of the Small Astronomy Satellites series, pictured here. SAS-1, also known as Uhuru, was the first spacecraft to provide a comprehensive all-sky survey in the X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Credits: NASA/Goddard

马乔里·汤森正在讨论SAS一号的外观,这是小型天文卫星的第一系列。SAS一号,也就是自由号卫星,这是第一颗用于综合性全天巡天观测电磁频谱X射线辐射的卫星。

图片来源:NASA戈达德研究所

 

SAS-1, also known as Uhuru, the Swahili word for freedom, became NASA’s first satellite fully dedicated to observing the X-ray sky. The observations SAS-2 took in the gamma-ray spectrum provided the first information about the gamma-ray sky. SAS-3 provided precise enough X-ray observations to pave the way for observations by optical telescopes, and located a quasar using X-ray emissions for the first time.

SAS一号(Uhuru号卫星,Uhuru是斯瓦西里语 “自由” 的意思)成为了NASA第一颗完全用于观测X射线天空的卫星。SAS二号用于观测伽马射线,以得到伽马射线天空的第一手资料。SAS三号提供更为精准的X射线观测信息,为轨道望远镜观测做准备,以及首次利用X射线辐射定位类星体。

In 1973, Townsend was one of six women to win the Federal Woman’s Award, a nationwide award to give public recognition to women in federal careers, attract attention to their work and help recruit women to the government sector.

1973年,汤森成为了第六位获得联邦妇女奖的获得者,这是一个全美性质的奖项,用于表彰妇女在联邦事业中的贡献,以及通过这个奖励鼓励女性为政府工作。

 

Joanne Simpson

乔安妮·辛普森

 

The first American woman to earn a doctorate degree in meteorology in 1949, Simpson spent more than 30 years of her career at Goddard. She focused on cloud system research, particularly her hot towers hypothesis, in which she surmised that warm, moist air rising off the ocean created soaring clouds that fed tropical storm systems.

1949年,辛普森成为了美国历史上第一位获得气象学博士头衔的女性,她在戈达德研究所工作超过三十年之久。她从事云层系统的研究,特别是她的热塔假设:她认为,海洋温湿的上升空气是热带云系的主要力量。

 

Joanne Simpson examines a poster about clouds and tropical weather at Goddard in 1985. Simpson was the first American woman to receive a doctorate degree in meteorology and went on to work at Goddard for three decades.

Credits: NASA/Goddard

照片拍摄于1850年戈达德研究所,乔安妮·辛普森正在检测一份关于云系和热带气象的海报。辛普森是美国历史上第一位获得气象学博士头衔的女性,她在戈达德研究所工作长达30年。

图片来源:NASA戈达德研究所

 

Simpson served in a number of roles, including project scientist on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, a joint mission between NASA and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency to study rainfall in the tropics that helped scientists learn more about hot towers.

辛普森在戈达德研究所曾参与多项任务,包括热带降雨量测量任务的项目科学家,以及在一个NASA与日本宇航研究机构合作的热带降雨研究中帮助科学家们学习热塔理论。

TRMM ended in April 2015, and scientists at Goddard today are using a successor mission, the Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory satellite, launched in 2014, to continue those studies.

热带降雨量测量任务于2015年4月结束,于2014年发射的全球降水测量核心天文卫星将接替戈达德研究所的科学家们继续这一研究。

These are only a few of the women who have played a significant role in NASA’s pursuit of knowledge. The ranks of women driving the agency’s mission forward continue to expand, as they have for more than 58 years.

以上只是一小部分为NASA取得重要成就的女性。女性在戈达德研究所工作的历史已经长达58年,越来越多的女性成员将继续为太空事业做出更大的贡献

 

原文链接:http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/goddard-pioneers-celebrating-women-in-science-and-engineering

 

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