Highlights from a Decade of JAXA and NASA’s Hinode Solar Observatory | 来自日出的图像

原文链接:https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/highlights-from-a-decade-of-jaxa-and-nasa-s-hinode-solar-observatory

 

Since its launch on Sept. 22, 2006, Hinode, a joint mission of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and NASA, has been watching the sun nearly non-stop, providing valuable insight into our star – and others throughout the universe.

自2006年9月22日由日本宇宙航空研究开发机构与NASA联合发射升空起,Hinode(日出)太阳探测器就几乎一刻不停地注视着太阳,向地球以及宇宙中的其他探测器提供珍贵的资料。

“The sun is terrifying and gorgeous, and it’s also the best physics laboratory in our solar system,” said Sabrina Savage, project scientist for Hinode at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. “In the past 10 years, Hinode has focused on understanding our sun as a variable star.”

“太阳是巨大而灿烂的,同时也是太阳系中最好的物理实验室。” Sabrina Savage,阿拉巴马州马歇尔太空飞行中心Hinode探测器项目科学家如此说道,“在过去的10年中,Hinode探测器眼中的太阳就是一颗阴晴不定的星球。”

Hinode has captured everything from solar explosions to the delicate motion of solar spicules, allowing scientists to study these phenomena in great detail. As most of Hinode’s instruments are still in good working order, the team behind Hinode hopes to delve even deeper into our nearest star.

Hinode探测器捕捉了太阳变化的每一个瞬间,大至太阳风暴,小至太阳针状体的精密活动,为科学家研究太阳气候提供了极其重要的细节信息。Hinode探测器上的大多仪器现在都处于正常工作状态,因此Hinode探测器小组希望能够继续探寻太阳更深处的秘密。

“We recently adjusted mission operations to track a single target for several days, instead of jumping around among active regions,” said Savage. “This new paradigm will allow us to get a more complete picture of active region evolution.”

“最近我们调整了Hinode探测器的运行,与其让探测器探测记录一块区域中的各种变化,现在,探测器将会用几天的时间追踪一个单独的目标,”Savage说道,“这样得到的变化数据将让我们对太阳活动区域演变有一个更完整的概念。”

To celebrate Hinode’s first 10 years in orbit, here are 10 highlights from Hinode’s scientific accomplishments of the past decade.

为了庆祝Hinode探测器在轨道上运行的第十年,这里将展示10件来自Hinode探测器这十年中最出色的科学成果。

 


Credits: JAXA/NASA/Hinode

This image of Venus was taken during the Venus transit of June 5, 2012, by Hinode’s Solar Optical Telescope. In this image, Venus is just beginning its journey across the face of the sun. Its atmosphere is visible as a thin, glowing border on the upper left of the planet. Scientists used images from the Venus transit, taken by Hinode and other sun-watching satellites, to study the atmosphere of Venus.

这张照片上是2012年6月5日Hinode探测器搭载的太阳光学望远镜拍摄到的金星。图片中,金星正开始运行于太阳表面。在图片中金星的左上方,可以看到它薄且正在挥发的大气层。科学家通过观察Hinode探测器以及其他太阳观测卫星拍摄到的这期间的金星,来研究金星的大气层。

 


Credits: NASA/JAXA/Hinode

These images of the moon eclipsing the sun on May 12, 2012, coincided with a simultaneous annular eclipse visible from parts of the western United States and Southeast Asia. An annular eclipse happens when the moon passes directly in front of the sun at a point in its orbit when it is relatively far from Earth. This extra distance makes the moon appear smaller than the sun in the sky, so it doesn’t block the entire face of the sun, instead leaving a thin glowing band – often known as a ring of fire – around its edge.

以上图片拍摄于2012年5月12日,这是一场于美国西部与亚洲东南面可观测到的日环食。当月球轨道的某一点位于太阳和地球之间时,日环食就发生了。由于月球距离地球较远,看上去天空中的月球比太阳小,以至于月球无法完全遮住太阳,而在周围留下了一圈光环。

 


Credits: NASA/JAXA/Hinode

Hinode’s Solar Optical Telescope imaged the sun’s chromosphere – a thin layer between the sun’s surface and atmosphere – on Jan. 12, 2007. This image showcases the filament structure of solar material that is pulled and stretched by the sun’s complex and ever-changing magnetic forces.

Hinode探测器搭载的太阳光学望远镜于2007年1月12日拍摄到的太阳色球层——位于太阳表面和大气之间的一层。照片中显示太阳的太阳暗条结构正在被太阳复杂而不停变化的磁场拉伸着。

 


Credits: NASA/JAXA/Hinode

This footage from Hinode’s X-ray Telescope is a composite of nearly two months of images, from Aug. 17, 2013, to Oct. 4, 2013. The bright spots near the center of the disk are active regions, areas of concentrated magnetic field that are prone to eruptions like solar flares and coronal mass ejections. These images were captured near the maximum activity phase of the sun’s 11-year cycle, a period during which active regions are concentrated near the sun’s equator.

这段连续镜头由Hinode探测器的X光望远镜拍摄图像合成,图片记录了2013年8月17日至2013年10月4日的太阳活动。图片中靠近太阳中间的亮点是太阳运动的活跃区域,在集中地磁场下即将爆发出太阳耀斑或抛射出日冕物质。这些照片捕捉到了太阳11年循环中几乎最强的太阳活动,在这期间,太阳的活跃区域将集中在太阳赤道附近。

 


Credits: NASA/JAXA/Hinode

Hinode captured this image of Comet Lovejoy – seen here as an orange streak in the lower left of the frame – with its Solar Optical Telescope on Dec. 16, 2011. Comet Lovejoy is a large member of the Kreutz family of comets, a group of comets that often pass extremely close to the sun. Comet Lovejoy is rare in that it survived its trip around the sun, emerging intact on the other side.

图为Hinode探测器搭载的太阳光学望远镜于2011年12月16日拍摄到的Lovejoy彗星——在图片左下方。Lovejoy彗星是克鲁兹族彗星中的一员,它们的轨道极其靠近太阳。Lovejoy彗星是少数在它们的掠日旅途中幸存的一颗,而且几乎完好无损。

 


Credits: NASA/JAXA/Hinode

Hinode caught this view of a solar explosion on Aug.1, 2014. This explosion was set off by unstable magnetic fields on the sun’s surface. The footage was captured by Hinode’s X-ray Telescope. Though X-rays are typically invisible to our eyes, they are colorized here in orange for easy viewing.

动图来自Hinode探测器的X光望远镜捕捉到的2014年8月1日太阳爆发的一组图片。这场爆发是由太阳表面不稳定的磁场引起的。人的肉眼无法看到X光,图片加上了橙色才能让人方便地观测。

 


Credits: NASA/JAXA/Hinode

Hinode’s Solar Optical Telescope took this close-up of a solar filament on Oct. 19, 2013. Filaments are huge ribbons of relatively cool material that thread through the sun’s atmosphere, called the corona. Scientists used this image and others from Hinode to learn more about how solar material is heated in the corona.

2013年10月19日,Hinode探测器搭载的太阳光学望远镜在近距离拍摄到了太阳暗条的图片。太阳暗条是穿过太阳大气层,处于日冕中的相对低温的巨型带状物。科学家们利用这张以及其它来自Hinode探测器的图片,来研究太阳物质如何在日冕中被加热。

 


Credits: NASA/JAXA/Hinode

What happens to a sunspot during a solar flare? Hinode helped answer that question with this view of a flare taken by its Solar Optical Telescope on Dec. 13, 2006, just a few months after launch. The bright threads of solar materials visible over the sunspots helped scientists deduce how sunspots and solar flares are linked.

在太阳爆发耀斑时,太阳黑子会如何?Hinode探测器在2006年12月13日,它才发射几个月后,就由太阳光学望远镜拍摄到的太阳耀斑回答了这个问题。太阳黑子周围明亮的线装物质让科学家们推断出了太阳黑子和太阳耀斑的联系形式。

 


Credits: NASA/JAXA/Hinode

Hinode’s Solar Optical Telescope captured this footage of the sun’s limb. The thread-like structures – which somewhat resemble grass waving in the wind – are spicules, giant plumes of gas that transfer energy through the sun’s various regions.

Hinode探测器的太阳光学望远镜捕捉了太阳边缘的一组图。这些线状结构——有些像风中摇动的草的部分——是针状体,气体的巨型羽状喷射物,在将太阳能量传递到太阳的周边区域。

 


Credits: NASA/JAXA/Hinode

This close-up from Hinode’s Solar Optical Telescope shows convection cells on the surface of the sun. Convection is one way that the sun transports energy from its depths up to the surface, where it’s emitted as light and heat.

图为Hinode探测器的太阳光学望远镜在近距离拍摄到的太阳表面对流室。对流室是太阳将能量由深处以光和热的形式传输到太阳表面的方式之一。

 

By Sarah Frazier
NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.

Last Updated: Sept. 22, 2016

Editor: Rob Garner

 

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